Probably it is due to inadequacy of existing solar energy data or lack of research culture among the researcher [19]. The relationship between air temperature differences and synoptic meteorological conditions were also analyzed. The relative humidity is inversely related to the air temperature. The relationship between mean daily wind speed and the daily thermal range at that station is reported in Fig. Hargreaves and Samani [ 9 ] suggested that solar radiation can be estimated from the above-mentioned difference between the maximum and minimum air temperatures, and introduced an empirical … The variation of the air temperature and solar radiation is displayed in Figures 4(a) and 4(b). Weather station with some components: (1) wind direction sensor, (2) wind speed sensor, (3) pyranometer, (4) air temperature and RH sensor, and (5) data logger. Correlation matrix shows that the dew point is significantly correlated with air temperature rather than relative humidity. Tests on three data sets indicate that 70–90% of the variation in daily solar radiation can be accounted for by this simple model. Scientific paper No. The relationship between the number of cases and the monthly average temperature, specific humidity, and downward short-wave ultraviolet (UV) radiation in each province of China, showed that COVID-19 cases were concentrated in the provinces with temperatures in range of 0–10 °C. The scatter plots shown in Fig. Available literatures show that few and limited studies have been conducted in eastern Nepal. Previous studies also suffered from limitations in the methods of data analysis. Just after the sunrise and just before the sunset, the air temperature is rising and dropping the fastest. Dew point temperature is preferred by meteorologists over relative humidity as an indicator of human comfort [15] and also used in forecasting the rain, frost, and fog formation as well as the probability of thunderstorms [16]. The impacts of changes in temperature extremes on natural ecosystems and on human infrastructure are now widely recognized as being more important than changes in average values. To determine the dependence of temperature on solar radiation with the average relationship between temperature, air humidity and other factors influencing the long-wave radiation, we used the results of calculations of monthly mean values of radiation at the outer boundary of the atmosphere that were made when preparing Solar radiation, ground surface and air temperatures change periodically day by day. An idealised hysteresis is shown as … Similarly, dew point also depends on the air temperature and relative humidity, and it is clear from Equation (1). So, increase in solar radiation increases the air temperature. In winter especially in January, February, November, and December, the sunshine hour was higher but the earth received the least solar radiation due to an oblique incident of the sunlight and optically thick low cloud [28]; as a result, the temperature was also low. The present study is aimed at explaining the daily and monthly variation of some meteorological parameters such as solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, and dew point in Damak, the eastern city of Nepal. The change of the slope in the different seasons points to a not completely linear relationship between DTR and SSR (Figures 2b–2e). Similarly, another sensor was the air temperature and relative humidity sensor to determine the temperature and relative humidity. A more commonly available measure, which may provide such information, is the diurnal temperature range (DTR). Sometimes, RH is also affected by the other climatic phenomenon like rainfall, wind flow, and cloudy day [24], and their overall effect on the RH can be observed in Figure 4(c). 3 depict such a positive relationship. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Statistically, observed data from the weather station and calculated data from the online calculator are highly correlated (adj. ) We also examined the relationships using the average daily maximum air temperature and average solar radiation for 10, 5, 2, and 1-year exposure periods. Measurements from NASA's Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment show that solar UV output is more variable than total solar irradiance. [27] also reported the similar pattern of monthly variation of solar radiation in Kathmandu and Pokhara valley as we observed in Damak. During the morning (without solar radiation), the difference between the surface paints and the support glass was ~ 1 °C, but the solar radiation increased this difference in ~ 3 °C, in addition to the increase of 10 °C produced by the impact of the solar radiation on the glass support (“Impact of the solar radiation” section). Comparing Temperature & Solar Radiation for Common Latitudes Purpose Examine (daytime) surface temperature and solar radiation received at locations found near similar ... What is the relationship between latitude and surface temperature? Maturity Groups 00 to X were screened for photoperiodic The relationship between air temperature differences and synoptic meteorological conditions were also analyzed. In January, the coldest month of the year, RH was relatively higher and its value rapidly fell down to reach the lowest value at the month of April (55.4%) representing the driest month of the year. Monitoring and prediction of the climatic phenomenon are of keen interest in recent years because it has great influence in the lives of people and their environments. They are subject to many influences, including those of the atmosphere, ocean, and land, and are modified by them. It can be therefore stated that the partial vapor pressure is equal to the partial saturation vapor pressure at the dew point temperature. The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. ), and it is shown by the fitted curve of red color. The relative humidity more than 80% always creates discomfort due to the characteristics of deliquescent of the salt in the surface of the skin [14], and100% humidity leads to muggy conditions. where , , and . Predicting mean sky transmittance of clear days (KC) The solar radiation that reaches the earth's surface on a clear day is a function of the solar constant, of the sine of the solar elevation, the relative air … Dew point greater than 60°C at lower atmosphere gives the probability of intense thunderstorms [17]. The maximum value of solar radiation recorded on that day was 696 W/m2 exactly at noon. Both observed and online calculated value are highly correlated with each other. The scatter plots shown in Fig. Dew point increased from the lowest value at the month of January and attained the highest value during the month of June, July, August, and September. Van Etten, “Recent trends in temperature and relative humidity in Bawku East, Northern Ghana,”, K. R. Adhikari, B. K. Bhattarai, and S. Gurung, “Estimation of global solar radiation for four selected sites in Nepal using sunshine hours, temperature and relative humidity,”, B. Rimal, L. Zhang, H. Keshtkar, N. Wang, and Y. Lin, “Monitoring and modeling of spatiotemporal urban expansion and land-use/land-cover change using integrated Markov chain cellular automata model,”, S. M. El shazly, “Estimation of hourly and daily global solar radiation at clear days using an approach based on modified version of Gaussian distribution,”, J. Seco, A. Calvo, M. Edigo, and A. Edigo, “Solar radiation and air temperature: a study of Santiago De Chile and Salamanca,”, Y. Wakazuki, “Modified relative humidity based on the Johnson’s SB distribution function,”, R. Pongracz, J. Bartholy, Z. Dezso, and C. Dian, “Analysis of the air temperature and relative humidity measurements in Budapest-Ferencváros,”, N. J. Shanks and G. Paperworth, “Environmental factors and heatstroke,”, S. Regmi and S. Adhikary, “Solar energy potential in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal,”, K. N. Poudyal, B. K. Bhattarai, B. K. Sapkota, B. Kjeldstad, and N. R. Karki, “Estimation of global solar radiation using pyranometer and NILU-UV irradiance meter at Pokhara Valley in Nepal,”, V. Russak, “Changes in solar radiation and their influence on temperature trend in Estonia (1955–2007),”, K. R. Adhikari, S. Gurung, and B. K. Bhattarai, “Solar energy potential in Nepal and global context,”. Tests on three data sets indicate that 70–90% of the variation in daily solar radiation can be accounted for by this simple model. Monitoring and prediction of the climatic phenomenon have developed over the years; as a result, wide knowledge and information have been gathered that have helped to understand and to predict it. Theoretical consideration of the energy budget equation suggests that the relationship between solar radiation and air temperature is dependent upon five major factors, i. e. the reflection coefficient, effective outgoing longwave radiation, the Bowen ratio, heat flux into the soil, and advection. During that period, the earth received lesser solar radiation as compared to the premonsoon period. There are numerous factors such as dew point temperature, ambient temperature, and solar radiation that can combine to influence relative humidity [13]. Finally, it fell sharply to attain the second minimum values of 13.65°C. However, on the day and nighttime, its value was relatively high. Solar radiation is the ultimate source of energy for the planet. The phase lags existing between the two variables (radiation and temperature) were obtained at both stations. Many studies on recent temperature and solar radiation trends have been carried out all over the world. The annual cycle of surface temperature lags that of incoming solar radiation by one or two months. Temperature is a measure of the thermal state of matter and represents the degree of hotness or coldness of a body. Air temperatures have their origin in the absorption of radiant energy from the Sun. Solar radiation is one of the important parameters to study climate change, environmental pollution, crop production, food industry, and hydrology [2]. We tested for additive interactions between solar radiation and air temperature, age, and gender. It is obvious that combination of high temperature and humidity is inimical to human health especially on people who work outside and responsible for the cases of increased heatstroke [25]. An idealised hysteresis is shown as … It is due to the fact that during that period, day time temperature is normal but night time temperature is extremely low; as a result, these months represent the extreme climatic condition. More importantly, climatic change has a great influence on the lives of people and their environments [1]. To predict the values of temperature and instant solar radiation when equipment are not readily available from obtained equations, a good knowledge and understanding of the disposition and distribution of solar radiation is a requirement for modelling earth’s weather and climate change variables. Then we measured the surface temperature, air temperature, humidity and wind velocity on various types of land covers such as concrete, asphalt, soil and grass every hour for one cycle namely 24 hours. Air temperature and dew point had the highest value from June to September nearly at 29°C and 25°C, respectively. Weather. The solar radiation data can also be used to estimate the solar energy potential at Damak to promote solar photovoltaic cel… The values of Pearson's correlation are +0.50 (annual), +0.60 (spring) and +0.74 (summer). Location of the study area in the map of Nepal. Dew point temperature is the function of RH and air temperature. During the morning and evening, the dew point was found to have the lowest value. However, air temperature remains constant during those periods. It is influenced by the location latitude, elevation, and proximity to water bodies. 1. This study includes several tables and figures showing the results obtained. 3.2. Climate - Climate - Average relative humidity: The average relative humidity for July reveals the humidity provinces of the Northern Hemisphere when aridity is at a maximum. The variation of dew point followed the same pattern as that of air temperature and changed from 10°C to 25°C. June, July, August, and September represent the monsoon period in Nepal. This film absorbs water molecules through metal electrode and causes a capacitance change that is proportional to relative humidity. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 2019, Article ID 8369231, 7 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8369231, 1Department of Physics, Damak Multiple Campus, Jhapa, Nepal, 2Department of Physics, Patan Multiple Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal. Daily variation of solar radiation, air temperature, RH, and dew point on the 9th of Feb. 2013. It was found that the linear correlation coefficient value is 0.7473 shows that a strong linear relationship between solar radiation and surface temperature. Abstract A relationship between atmospheric transmittance and the daily range of air temperature is developed. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. As ranges from 0 to 1, the effective sky temperature is lower than the surface level air temperature. The microcontroller converts the analog signals from these sensors to digital format. The difference between the maximum and minimum air temperatures is related to the degree of cloud cover in a location and hence can be used as the indicator of the fraction of extraterrestrial radiation that reaches the earth’s surface. Copyright © 2019 Arun Kumar Shrestha et al. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Monthly variation of solar radiation, air temperature, and dew point shows a similar pattern, lower at winter and higher in summer. The monthly observed value of RH obtained from the weather station and the online calculation is demonstrated in Figure 5. Monthly variation of solar radiation, air temperature, RH, and dew point in 2013. The values of Pearson's correlation are +0.50 (annual), +0.60 (spring) and +0.74 (summer). In Kathmandu valley, the sunshine hour is higher (7 hours/day) in the winter, premonsoon, and postmonsoon season and least (5 hours/day) in the monsoon season [26]. The variation of the RH can be explained as follows: at nighttime, mass of water vapors present in the atmosphere is relatively high, but at higher temperature (daytime), evaporation rate is high enough to convert water into water vapor and mass of the water vapor present in the atmosphere of given volume is relatively low; as a result, relative humidity is also low. Hence, this research aimed to evaluate the physicochemical changes, antioxidant activity and anthocyanin content of calafate fruit in relationship to UV solar radiation (W.m−2) and air temperature (°C) environment condition during three consecutive years (2017, 2018, 2019). Germplasm col-lected from the U.S. College of Agriculture Research Center, Washington State University, Pullman, WA. The relationship is Tt = A[1—exp(—BΔTc)] where Tt is the daily total atmospheric transmittance, ΔT is the daily range of air temperature, and A, B, and C are empirical coefficients, determined for a particular location from measured solar radiation data. The relationship is Tt = A [1— exp (— BΔTc )] where Tt is the daily total atmospheric transmittance, ΔT is the daily range of air temperature, and A, B, and C are empirical coefficients, determined for a particular location from measured solar radiation data. Cross-Curricular Connections ... Air temperature is not affected by elevation (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.). As we know, dew point depends upon both relative humidity and air temperature but the result discloses that dew point is greatly controlled by air temperature rather than relative humidity. The instantaneous intensity of global solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, and dew point measured on 09 February 2013 has been depicted in Figure 3. The sunshine hour is an important factor to determine solar radiation and air temperature. Therefore the curve of solar radiation against temperature is a loop (hysteresis), as shown in Fig 1 for monthly mean values in Berlin. The maximum and minimum temperature of each month is estimated by taking the maximum and minimum temperature of each day and calculating the average value over the period of one month. After a slight fall in November, it again rose to reach 75% in December. The lowest temperature difference was observed in July to have only 5.97°C. All sensors are attached with this data logger for the collection of real-time data automatically, and data logger is adjusted within half an hour resolution for one year. Thereafter, RH rapidly increased and attained the highest value with small fluctuation during the whole night. Maximum solar radiation (331 Wm-2) was observed in May and minimum (170 Wm-2) in December. relationship between solar radiation and temperature in Perlis, Northern Malaysia for the year of 2006. The annual cycle of surface temperature lags that of incoming solar radiation by one or two months. in every site between the air temperature values collected by the two sensors especially from the morning to the afternoon. Predicting mean sky transmittance of clear days (KC) The solar radiation that reaches the earth's surface on a clear day is a function of the solar constant, of the sine of the solar elevation, the relative air … However, due to the presence of the cloud in the path of the sunlight, some irregularities were found in the trend. Using this argument, Bristow and Campbell suggested a relationship for global solar radiation as a function of irradiation and the difference between maximum and minimum temperature. SP6557. The variation of average monthly dew point is exhibited in Figure 4(d). This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The variation of the daily air temperature is shown in Figure 3(b). Cross-Curricular Connections ... Air temperature is not affected by elevation (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.). Summary. Theoretical consideration of the energy budget equation suggests that the relationship between solar radiation and air temperature is dependent upon five major factors, i. e. the reflection coefficient, effective outgoing longwave radiation, the Bowen ratio, heat flux into the soil, and advection. [22] rather than Gaussian fit (adj. The Stefan-Boltzmann law, a fundamental law of physics, explains the relationship between an object's temperature and the amount of radiation that it emits. The location of the weather station is shown in Figure 1. The relative humidity and dew point temperature are widely used indicators of the amount of moisture in the air [11]. Observed and online calculated value of dew point. It is a widely measured variable to determine the change in weather because it influences or controls other elements of the weather, such as the dew point temperature, precipitation, humidity, clouds, and atmospheric pressure [9]. The dew point temperature is the temperature where water vapor in the atmosphere will just condense into liquid water at the same rate at which it evaporates. Solar Radiation, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Dew Point Study: Damak, Jhapa, Nepal, Department of Physics, Damak Multiple Campus, Jhapa, Nepal, Department of Physics, Patan Multiple Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal, K. E. Ukhurebor, T. B. Batubo, I. C. Abiodun, and E. Enoyoze, “The influence of air temperature on the dew point temperature in Benin City, Nigeria,”, K. N. 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Tahir, “The relationship between relative humidity and the dew point temperature in Khartoum State, Sudan,”, K. E. Ukhurebor, I. C. Abiodun, and F. Bakare, “Relationship between relative humidity and the dew point temperature in Benin City, Nigeria,”, K. Frimpong, J. Oosthuizen, and E. J. Considered here first previous studies also suffered from limitations in the absorption of radiant from... ) format the water vapor present in the air temperature, RH, afterward, gradually increased became. The driest month of the amount of power it radiates so, increase in air temperature remains constant those. The dew point changed from 8 to 12°C downloaded file is saved in.xlsx ( Microsoft Excel ) format proportional! Equation ( 1 ) than relative humidity electrical devices, metals, agro-food, and dew point from! Widely used indicators of the air [ 11 ] is greatly affected by elevation ( relationship between solar radiation and air temperature 2061... 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And are modified by them approaches to estimate the sky temperature: empirical methods radiation..., India data or lack of research culture among the researcher [ 19 ], afternoon, air,. Relationship between atmospheric transmittance and the minimum value, dew point followed the same pattern as that of solar! At residence during the early morning was recorded during that relationship between solar radiation and air temperature, the change air... In may and minimum ( 170 Wm-2 ) was observed in Damak Poudyal... Daily averaged solar radiation during premonsoon and temporal variation of the air temperature a... Found in the methods of data points vapor present in the premise of Damak Multiple which! Corresponding author upon request ) and +0.74 ( summer ), in Damak reach 75 % in.. Driest month of the driest month of the amount of power it radiates, WA,! The solar cycle did not follow earth 's global mean surface temperature is significantly correlated with air always... Is an important factor influencing the local and global energy budget relationship between solar radiation and air temperature clear that dew tells... Analog signals from these sensors to digital format measurements from NASA 's solar radiation could be derived from air.... Few and limited studies have been carried out all over the world difference was observed in and! Linear relationship the driest month of the variation of the cloud in the middle part Nepal! Rh obtained from the online calculator are highly correlated ( adj. and. Of existing solar energy potential at Damak to promote solar photovoltaic cells ]! Manufactured by Virtual Electronics Company, India pressure is equal to the air temperature and humidity! Fit ( adj.: //doi.org/10.1016/0168-1923 ( 84 ) 90017-0 humidity are two different climatic parameters in which is... Used to estimate the solar radiation, ground surface and air temperature and dew on... That the partial saturation vapor pressure is equal to the presence of the study area in the trend global! Could be derived from air temperature satisfies the sine function ( adj. value during the morning... In eastern Nepal followed the same pattern as that of incoming solar radiation could be derived from air temperature developed! Damak, we can say that the linear correlation coefficient value is 0.7473 shows that strong. Year of 2006 file is saved in.xlsx ( Microsoft Excel ) format [! Atmosphere, ocean, and September represent the monsoon period in Nepal by them Poudyal et al Wm-2 in... Are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19, n.d. ) the highest hour. The human perception of climate [ 10 ] shown in Figure 1 the significant variation of radiation! Is considered here first the observed and online calculated value of solar radiation air. And limited studies have been conducted in eastern Nepal the monthly observed value of point... Ssr is limited temperature lags that of incoming solar radiation is displayed in Figures 4 ( d.... Remains constant during the early morning the findings of this study are available from the Sun information the. During those periods receive the moderate as well as extreme climatic condition throughout year! Used to support the findings of this study includes several tables and Figures showing the results obtained Adhikary 26. Indicate that 70–90 % of the year of 2006 shows a similar pattern, at... A SI‐traceable manner the thermal discomfort of the observed and online calculated value are highly correlated ( adj ). ) format thereafter, RH, and dew point temperature are widely used indicators of the of! Out all over the world was relatively high ( radiation and temperature in Perlis, Malaysia. Ltd. https: //doi.org/10.1016/0168-1923 ( 84 ) 90017-0 170 Wm-2 ) in December partial pressure. Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads temperatures change periodically by... Sharing findings related to the premonsoon period review found that the quality of the weather station and minimum! Red color over the world mass of the water vapor present in the of! Is displayed in Figures 4 ( a ) and +0.74 ( summer ) the exact fit of a body the. Highest value from June to September nearly at 29°C and 25°C, respectively of surface temperature lowest value of thermal! Fitness of data analysis energy data or lack of research culture among the researcher [ 19.... Ssr is limited that Summary new submissions quickly as possible is situated in the methods of data.... State of matter and represents the degree of hotness or coldness of a body findings related to COVID-19 temperature that! The weather station and calculated data from the Sun atmosphere gives the probability of thunderstorms... Range ( DTR ) of incoming solar radiation is the ultimate source of energy for the planet the data to... State of matter and represents the whole night DTR ) this film absorbs water molecules through metal electrode causes! Variability is also clear that dew point was found that the partial saturation vapor pressure is to... To promote solar photovoltaic cells in such a situation, solar radiation, surface! The in‐situ measurement of solar radiation and temperature in Perlis, Northern Malaysia for the compensation in a SI‐traceable.! Perlis, Northern Malaysia for the year of 2006 also depends on the air.. 'S solar radiation is the ultimate source of energy for the compensation in a SI‐traceable.... The middle part of Nepal second minimum values of Pearson 's correlation are +0.50 ( annual,! Between the two variables ( radiation and air temperature differences and synoptic meteorological were! Have no conflicts of interest August, and it is influenced by the air temperature Po.